Skateboard skateboard article journal deck materials selection

1 Material Engineering of The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
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Haoyu Liu 1 , Tasha Coote 1 , Aiolos 1 and Charlie 1
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Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science , Volume 128 , 3rd International Conference on Energy Equipment Science and Engineering 28–31 December 2017, Beijing, skateboard article journal China Citation Haoyu Liu et al 2018 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 128 012170
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Create citation alert 1755-1315/128/1/012170 Abstract The goal of this project was to identify the ideal material for a skateboard deck under $200 in price, minimizing the weight. The material must have a fracture toughness of 5 MPa/m2, have a minimum lifetime of 10, 000 cycles and must not experience brittle fracture. Both single material and hybrid solutions were explored. When further selecting to minimize weight, woods were found to be the best material. Titanium alloy-wood composites were explored to determine the optimal percentage composition of each material.A sandwich panel hybrid of 50% titanium alloy and 50% wood was found to be the optimum material, skateboard scholarly articles
Skateboard skateboard article journal deck materials selectionSkateboard skateboard article journal deck materials selection

Best skateboard shoe article Skate Shoes of 2021 GearLab

The final feature that we rated each shoe on was its breathability. Like durability, this metric was mainly determined by the materials and design of each shoe, as the type of fabric and where it’s placed affects the ventilation. While a material like canvas may not hold up as well as leather, it is much lighter and more breathable, but by incorporating mesh panels, a leather shoe can achieve a level of ventilation that’s just as good, if not greater. In rating the breathability of each option, we wore socks of the same thickness throughout and spent several hours on multiple days skating in each pair. After skating, we would remove the shoes to see how hot the insoles and our feet ended up being.
The first thing to be considered for any pair of shoes is how they fit and how comfortable and supportive they are. Size and fit can vary between brands or certain models, so it’s important to get the correct size to ensure optimal performance. Many models these days are thin with minimal padding to reduce the amount of time it takes to get them broken in, but this also reduces the level of support and protection that they provide. To test the comfort and support, we spent several days walking around and skating in each, and the ones that kept our feet from getting sore received the highest marks.
The Lakai Carroll is a remastered version of the legendary skateboarder Mike Carroll’s first Lakai shoe, originally released in 2000. Now 20 years later, Lakai released this newer version comprised of the same upper, but on a more contemporary XLK cup sole. These Lakai’s fit great and are very comfortable. They have a thicker tongue than any of the others and a good amount of padding around the collar, which helps to hold your foot in place and offers great support. The upper is a mix of suede and mesh. The suede wraps around the lower panels providing protection and durability in the areas used most, and the mesh windows and mesh tongue allow for excellent ventilation. The XLK cup sole breaks in quickly and provides the best impact absorption of all the shoes we tested, and the outsole around the forefoot has a light grid pattern, which grips very well for tricks. The Carroll’s are the only model that offers any kind of lace protection, which further adds to their durability. So, these Lakai’s are not only one of the most breathable shoes we tested, but also among the most durable.
The DC Kalis Vulc is an all-around great skate shoe and another updated version of a classic. Josh Kalis’ first DC shoe was originally released in 1999 and shared the same side panel with the Kalis Vulc, but the similarities stop there. Compared to the Kalis OG, the Kalis Vulc is much thinner, slimmer, and weighs less atop a much simpler vulcanized sole. This shoe is very comfortable and requires virtually no time to break-in; it’s ready to skate right out of the box. The suede toe is great for flip tricks, and it held up really well during testing. The mesh tongue and collar give it adequate ventilation without sacrificing durability. The vulcanized sole is very grippy, and the insoles are plush and soft, providing some impact protection and making this one of the most comfortable shoes in the bunch.
One main drawback to skating in the All Coasts 574’s is the time required to get them broken in. The sole is rather stiff at first, and the rubber seems harder than that used on the other shoes, which made them a little slick during the first couple of sessions. Even though this pair held up well for a few months of skating, some of the stitching came out of the tongue, which was more of a design issue than due to skating. This wasn’t immediately a huge deal, but since the tongue already has exposed foam around the edge, the fabric on top separated, and the stitching continued to unravel and get worse. We were surprised that New Balance didn’t seal up this exposed seam with stitching, leaving an obvious weak point concerning the longevity of the tongue. Aside from that, the only thing that may be of concern for some is the fit. New Balance shoes tend to run pretty small, so getting a half size up is recommended. This is especially true with these 574’s, which are quite narrow, so they won’t fit as well for anyone with wider feet. Still, if you desire a casual shoe that can occasionally hop on a skateboard and perform well, the New Balance All Coasts 574 is a good option.
Best skateboard shoe article Skate Shoes of 2021 GearLab
Best skateboard shoe article Skate Shoes of 2021 GearLab
Shoes made with leather, especially suede, hold up better and last longer than shoes made of canvas or synthetic materials. The shoes with the greatest durability were the Lakai Carroll , the New Balance All Coasts , and the Emerica Pillar , which are all made mostly of suede. All of these were great for skating and showed minimal signs of wear after several days of skating.
The Nike SB Check Solarsoft Canvas is a good shoe that doesn’t require much time to break-in and is pretty much ready to skate right away. The canvas upper is breathable and skates well, which, paired with the vulcanized sole, creates the most lightweight shoe in the test group. The canvas on the SB Check must be reinforced in some way because it held up better than any other canvas shoe we tested or have tried before. The Solarsoft sock liner is super comfortable and offers excellent support, especially for how thin this shoe is. The vulcanized sole is very grippy and offers excellent traction on and off the board.
Since skaters are constantly jumping on and off obstacles and dragging their feet across grip tape, durability is one of the most important aspects of any skate shoe. Despite having similarities in looks or design, the level of durability differs greatly between models, depending on the materials. The design also plays a part in the overall durability, as having a rubber toe cap or lace protection will help preserve the life of the shoe. To gauge the durability of each model, we did 25 consecutive kickflips, along with dozens of other flip tricks during hours of skating, to find the areas of weakness and see how well each held up.
These Lakai’s felt great and skated well, but it’s important that you get the right size, as they run a bit small, so getting a half size up may be needed . Since the Carroll’s are thicker and have more padding than most of the others, they do take some time to break-in, but like the Emerica’s, the added durability makes it worth it. Once it’s broken in, the XLK cup sole provides a great amount of board feel and grips well while skating, but the tread is not very deep, so the traction began to wear out faster than most of the others. Several skate shoe companies have started reissuing or releasing updated versions of shoes from the early 2000s, and the Lakai Carroll is a great example of an iconic shoe with an updated sole for a more modern fit and performance.

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Since the Pillar is a mid-top and has more material than the other models, it is slightly heavier, although not enough to make a noticeable difference when skating or have a negative effect in our assessment. The entire upper of the shoe is suede , so they can get rather hot, but the few small perforated areas provide some ventilation. These Emerica’s did take a little more time to break-in than most of the low-tops, but they also held up longer, so it’s a pretty fair trade-off. The sole is kind of thick, so the foot sits slightly higher above the ground, which can decrease stability, but fortunately, the footbed sank as the shoe broke-in. While the Pillar does provide support for the ankles, the insole is very flat and offers very little arch support. So, for anyone who’s got deeper arches in their feet, you may want to get some arch support inserts or switch out the insoles. All things considered, the Emerica Pillar is an excellent skate shoe, which offers more support and protection than any of the others, making it the best option for high impact skating and the pair we reach for first.
For skaters, having a shoe that moves with their feet and allows them to feel the board is imperative, so the majority of skate shoes are designed with a thin but durable upper on a flat sole. Since skateboarding is harsh on feet and shoes, having footwear that is protective and can withstand punishment, yet maintains a sensitive board feel, is a necessity, and like other athletic shoes, comfort, traction, and breathability are also important. We spent hours skating in each model and based our ratings on the performance of each of these features, as well as the sum of their parts, to determine the best option for any type of skating.
While some may enjoy the fact that these Adidas are thin, the lack of protection and support is not ideal for taking impacts, and aside from a tiny bit of padding in the collar, there is nothing to keep your feet from taking a beating. While the Seeley’s don’t require much time to break-in, their durability isn’t great, as they showed more signs of wear and didn’t hold up as well as the majority of the shoes we tested. Despite the shoes being lightweight, the upper’s synthetic material is not very breathable and there are no perforations for ventilation, so they get pretty hot, especially on warmer days. All things considered, the Adidas Seeley is a good shoe for skateboarding that’s lightweight, affordable, and versatile.
Even though the Adidas City Cup performs well in all areas, there are a few aspects that may not be ideal for everyone. First of all, this shoe is somewhat narrow, so it might not fit as well for somebody with wide feet. Also, the insole only provides minimal arch support. Being a low-top shoe with a very low profile, there is no ankle support either. While the sole has a herringbone tread under the forefoot and heel, the pattern disconnects between the two and is not as grippy in the middle. Lastly, even with the mesh and other features for breathability, these shoes got a little hot while skating, which is most likely due to the tongue being full-grain leather. As you can see, the majority of these critiques depend on the shape of one’s foot and are more a matter of personal preference. skateboard shoe article So, all in all, the Adidas City Cup is an outstanding shoe that works well for all types of skateboarding.
Despite the mix of cup soles and vulcanized soles and the fact that each shoe had a unique tread pattern, there wasn’t a huge difference in the traction they provided. However, the shoes with the grippiest soles were the Vans Authentic , the Nike SB , and the Emerica , which are all on vulcanized soles. So, even though the shoes with cup soles performed well in other areas, the softer rubber of the vulcanized models typically offered the best traction.
As previously mentioned, most brands are making lighter and thinner shoes to maximize board feel and reduce the time needed for breaking them in. While most of the shoes we tested delivered a high-level of board feel, there were a couple of models that really excelled here. The Nike SB Check , DC Kalis Vulc , and both the Adidas City Cup and Seeley all provided the optimal level of board feel and required very little time to break-in.
Although the SB Check Solarsoft proved more durable than your average canvas shoe, they still didn’t hold up as well as any of the leather or synthetic shoes. Also, even though the insole has a good amount of comfort, the outsole is rather thin and doesn’t provide much impact protection. Like most of the shoes we tested, these Nike’s don’t have much ankle support or any lace protection, but since the lace closure tapers toward the toe and sits pretty high up on the foot, we didn’t break any of the laces during testing. The only other thing that we find strange is that the toebox feels much wider than the rest of the shoe. They fit correctly and were very comfortable for walking, but the forefoot area felt a bit too roomy and loose while skating. We did have to size up to US Men’s 8.5 after discovering the size 8 we ordered was too small. All-in-all, the Nike SB Check Solarsoft is a very lightweight and well-ventilated shoe that’ll keep your feet cool through long skate sessions. And for those who prefer thin and flexible skate shoes, this is a good option that you can start skating right out of the box.
Another important factor for any type of athletic shoe is traction, as it helps with maintaining balance. The grip tape on top of a skateboard provides a lot of traction for the rider, but it’s important to have shoes that work together with the grip tape to maximize control. The sole is only part of this equation, as the materials of the upper also need to grip the board for tricks, so the 25 kickflip test that we used to gauge durability also played a part in our traction test. To further measure the traction, we saw how well each performed when being used as a foot brake, at roughly 15 mph, as well as when walking on various wet and dry surfaces. Although no two shoes had the same sole, the different tread patterns delivered similar levels of traction.
The simple design of the Vans Authentic may have been ideal for skateboarding during its infancy, but with the high impact skating of today, this shoe falls short due to its lack of padding and support. Many skaters prefer thin shoes, but with nothing more than a thin layer of canvas, these Vans offer little protection from the harsh nature of skateboarding and don’t hold up very well. In fact, the Authentic showed the most signs of wear and was the only shoe that we ripped a hole through during our testing period. Another disadvantage of these Vans is that the sole is slightly heavier and thicker than the others we tested, which along with the low profile and lack of support, can reduce stability and increase the likelihood of rolling an ankle. Despite all of this, the Vans Authentic is still a great option for cruising around and low impact skating that will continue to be enjoyed by skaters around the world for years to come.
The Vans Authentic is an icon and played a huge role in the development of skate shoes as we know them today. The first shoe designed specifically for skateboarding is the Vans Era, which is nearly identical to the Authentic, except that it has a little bit of padding in the collar. Vans’ patented waffle sole is the gold standard for skate shoes, as it breaks in quickly, is super grippy, and delivers an incredible amount of board feel. The Authentic has a simple canvas upper with no additional materials or padding, which keeps them lightweight and breathable, but isn’t very durable or protective. Vans also offers the Authentic Pro, which is reinforced with rubber and made with higher quality materials for added durability, but at a higher price. As a classic and instantly recognizable silhouette, the Vans Authentic is one of the most imitated shoes on Earth, and most skate footwear brands have a model that’s heavily inspired by it.
The amount of support varies greatly between skate shoes. Some like the Emerica Pillar have a lot of padding for the foot and ankle, while others don’t have anything more than a thin layer of fabric, which can be light and comfortable but offers little support. Many low-tops like the DC Kalis Vulc and Nike SB Check have a great insole and good padding around the collar, and therefore still offer a good amount of support. So, depending on your preference and the type of skating you’re doing, there’s a skate shoe on the market to accommodate your needs.
The New Balance All Coasts 574 V1 is technically a “lifestyle” shoe, as it’s not part of New Balance’s skateboarding line, NB Numeric. However, we looked it over and found it worthy of giving a shot, and found it works as a casual skate shoe. While the sole took some time to break-in, the narrow fit held our feet in place well, with no slippage of the heel. The upper is mostly suede around the toe, heel, and side panel for durability, with mesh over the toe and near the collar for ventilation. Although the sole is flat, the insoles provided sufficient arch support, which several other models lacked. The REVlite midsole is lightweight and provides good cushioning, and the gum sole bottoms deliver a decent amount of traction. Despite not being marketed as a skate shoe, the New Balance 574 is quite good for skateboarding and a very comfortable shoe overall.
The fact that the Kalis Vulc was ready to skate right away is mainly due to the sole being quite thin. However, depending on the type of skating one’s doing, this could also be seen as a negative, as these shoes are not ideal for taking big impacts. Even though the Kalis Vulc held up pretty well and didn’t outwardly show signs of wear for a while, they did lose their shape and get floppy rather quickly. The other main drawback was the lack of lace protection. Even though most of the shoes in our test group do not have protection for the laces, the wider shape of the lace closure makes the laces more likely to get ripped and break easier on this shoe. Overall, the DC Kalis Vulc is a great skate shoe that performs among the best at a price that’s a bit less, creating strong value.
Skaters need to be able to feel the board underneath their feet, so the board feel is arguably the most important aspect of any skate shoe. Many skaters are fully dedicated to either vulcanized or cup soled shoes, as they prefer the board feel that they get from one over the other. To test the level of board feel offered by each, we measured how high the foot sat in the footbed and how long it took to get them fully broken in. We then wore them while skating boards with different sizes, shapes, and grip tapes, as well as various degrees of concave to see how each felt. Spending weeks wearing each pair allowed us to get a good understanding of how well one can feel through any given model.
To find the best models on the market today, our lead expert spent weeks skating in each pair to punish them in the way that only skaters can. After researching over 40 styles and selecting 21 as potential options, we purchased all the models we reviewed at retail price. While some are classics that have been around for decades, a couple of them are updated versions of legendary pro models, and others are new models that were just released recently. Although most are low-tops, we purchased a variety of options made of various materials, and a mix of vulcanized and cup soles. Each pair was put through rigorous testing during multiple skate sessions, as well as just walking around on both dry and wet surfaces. To keep our testing process fair and objective, we performed each test in the same consistent manner and in roughly the same amount of time. So, after months of research and testing, our methods and experience give us full confidence in our recommendations.
The Adidas City Cup is another amazing skate shoe. They are thin and super lightweight but still have some padding to keep your feet protected. The cup sole breaks in quickly and conforms to the movements of the foot easily, and the foot sits very low in the footbed for increased stability and board feel that was unmatched in our test fleet. The upper is suede around the toe area and laces, which is ideal for flip tricks, with mesh around the heel and side panels for ventilation. There are also perforations in the leather where the toe meets the laces for added breathability. The tread pattern extends from the sole around part of the outsole for increased traction, which works in conjunction with the suede around the toe for maximum control of tricks. These Adidas held up well during testing, as suede is one of the most durable materials for skateboarding, and after the process was complete, they came out as one of our highest-rated pairs.
The Adidas Seeley is a decent skate shoe with a very simple design that delivers an excellent board feel. This shoe has a narrow fit and is very thin, both in the sole and the materials throughout, which allows them to be ready to skate right away. The upper is made completely out of synthetic material , which sits above a soft rubber vulcanized sole. The synthetic upper is fairly durable and holds up better than canvas, but won’t last nearly as long as shoes made with real leather. The gum bottoms of the vulcanized sole deliver great traction and have a pivot point beneath the ball of the foot that is helpful for adjusting one’s feet, and the rubber outsole grips the board well while doing tricks. These Adidas work for any level of skater, whether they’re just cruising around or trying to progress.
Even though the materials are the #1 factor in determining a shoe’s breathability, the climate and weather also play a part. Since this review was conducted during the fall as the temperature was lower, the results may have varied in warmer weather. However, despite this uncontrolled variable, the Lakai , New Balance , and Nike SB models delivered the best ventilation and kept our feet cool through the long sessions. So, although some shoes may have gotten hotter in the summer, we don’t think that the outcome would be any different, and we are confident in the results. skateboard magazine articles

Opinion The most refreshing sport at the Tokyo Olympics skateboarding la times skateboard article

Not everyone agrees that skateboarding belongs in the Olympics . Some say the Games represent a commercialization that strays too far from skateboarding’s counterculture roots. But skateboarding never really needed the platform of the Olympics in the first place.
“Skateboarding presents so many more options than you typically have in sports,”said Neftalie Williams, a visiting fellow at Yale University and postdoctoral scholar at the University of Southern California, who studies the interplay of diversity, identity and . “You have an entire sporting culture that’s marginalized, that has placed less emphasis on competition and focused more on expression, and has learned that that’s the vocabulary.”
While skateboarding allows an athlete’s individuality to shine through, the community is cohesive as well. “I feel like we’ve always been looked at as the outcasts,” Smith said, referring to the societal stigma pinned on skateboarders, “and we’ve all become a really big family.”
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“Growing up, skateboarding was my freedom and my creative outlet,” Eaton said. “Skateboarding is an art form, and every one of us does it differently. Name another sport like that in the Olympic Games.”
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Sports agent Yulin Olliver, who represents Olympians like Mariah Duran and Bryce Wettstein , said that skateboarding as a sport and lifestyle is inherently self-sufficient. There’s no need for coaches, teams or organized competitions. Those things exist in skateboarding, of course, but not out of necessity. As long as there are individuals who skateboard and find joy in doing so, the culture of skateboarding will remain strong.
“I was having an absolute blast,” American bronze medalist Jagger Eaton said about competing in the street event, where he nodded his head to music and laughed with his fellow competitors at the top of the course. All 20 skateboarders competing there were friendly with one another, he said.
Opinion The most refreshing sport at the Tokyo Olympics skateboarding la times skateboard articleOpinion The most refreshing sport at the Tokyo Olympics skateboarding la times skateboard article
Skateboarding doesn’t quite fit into any traditional sports box, much less the ultra competitive and highly polished spirit of the Olympic Games. But its presence in Tokyo brought a playfulness and individuality to the sport world’s biggest stage.
If you watched the Olympics, the way the skateboarders interacted with each other was often in stark contrast to other athletes. Competitors at some events, like gymnastics or swimming, typically didn’t stray far from their teammates. But skateboarders were enjoying each other’s company and lifting each other up regardless of country affiliation.
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“There’s no other sport in the world, no other art in the world, no other culture in the world that transcends boundaries in the way that skateboarding does,” said sponsored Los Angeles skater Ethan Singleton, who’s worked on research with Williams at USC.
“From my point of view, we’re having a lot more fun than everyone else,” Knoop said. “There’s an unspoken understanding between skaters and a bond that’s there.”
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Caroline Petrow-Cohen was a 2021 Opinion intern at the Los Angeles Times. She is a senior at Duke University, where she studies English, journalism and environmental science and policy. She has previously written for the Charlotte Observer, INDY Week and the 9th Street Journal.
“Skateboarding is where I feel I can express myself and let my own creativity play out,” American Olympian Alana Smith said. “At the Olympics, I definitely feel like it freshens up the environment and shows that it doesn’t have to be such a stressful time.”
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Every skateboarder has their own unique style, revealed in the way they approach obstacles, pop tricks or grab their board midair. There are no rules in skateboarding, no standards, no rigid structure — even at the Olympics. According to Mimi Knoop, professional skateboarder and head coach for the U.S. Olympic skateboard team, judges score the athletes based on trick progression, difficulty level and originality.
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Since its inception, skateboarding has defied conformity. Born in California in the 1950s, skateboarding became synonymous with the counterculture of the ’60s and served as a safe haven for society’s outcasts. Considered more of a lifestyle than a sport, skateboarding offered an escape from the mainstream and a platform for people to be themselves.
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“It’s almost like the Olympics needed skateboarding,” Olliver said, “not the other way around.”
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“We don’t have points for certain tricks because we wanted to stay away from that to keep it a little more creative,” Knoop said. “ skateboard articles I

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Skateboarding Guide 12 Skateboard Tricks for Beginners skateboard trick article
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Skateboarding skateboard magazine articles

By Larry Buchanan, Jon Huang, Emily Rhyne, Bedel Saget, Joe Ward, Jeremy White and Josh Williams
Keegan Palmer of Australia won gold in the men’s park event, Pedro Barros of Brazil took silver and Cory Juneau of the United States got bronze.
Kokona Hiraki, 12, and Sky Brown, 13, won silver and bronze in park skateboard, leaving Marjorie Gestring, a 13-year-old American diver, as the youngest athlete to have won an Olympic gold. But there’s a twist.
Sakura Yosozumi, 19, won by one point over 12-year-old Kokona Hiraki, also of Japan. skateboard magazine articles Sky Brown of Britain, 13, was third.
Search Search Clear this text input Covering a Weird Olympics A diver’s heartbreaking scratch. A medalist lifting up a teammate. Cherished glimpses of Japanese culture — our journalists saw a lot viewers may not have.
Although skateboarding was invented in the United States, its medal haul was limited. And that was just fine by a sport proud of its international cast.
Falling during skateboarding or other activities does not have to end in serious injury. Olympic athletes, coaches and scientists tell us how.
As skateboarding’s appeal has grown in the city during the pandemic, an inclusive community of skaters has become more visible.
See the Summer Olympics in a series of composite images.

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A park competition with lip tricks, grabs and aerial spin ends with gold for Sakura Yosozumi of Japan and more youthful celebrating at the Tokyo Games.
The presence of several teenagers in skateboarding, especially among women, is helping the sport’s Olympic goal of getting more youth into the Games. skateboard related articles

skateboard related articles Skateboarding

As skateboarding’s appeal has grown in the city during the pandemic, an inclusive community of skaters has become more visible.
Falling during skateboarding or other activities does not have to end in serious injury. Olympic athletes, coaches and scientists tell us how.
The presence of several teenagers in skateboarding, especially among women, is helping the sport’s Olympic goal of getting more youth into the Games.

Keegan Palmer of Australia won gold in the men’s park event, Pedro Barros of Brazil took silver and Cory Juneau of the United States got bronze.
Although skateboarding was invented in the United States, its medal haul was limited. And that was just fine by a sport proud of its international cast.
A park competition with lip tricks, grabs and aerial spin ends with gold for Sakura Yosozumi of Japan and more youthful celebrating at the Tokyo Games.
skateboard related articles Skateboardingskateboard related articles Skateboarding
Kokona Hiraki, 12, and Sky Brown, 13, won silver and bronze in park skateboard, skateboard related articles leaving Marjorie Gestring, a 13-year-old American diver, as the youngest athlete to have won an Olympic gold. But there’s a twist.
Search Search Clear this text input Covering a Weird Olympics A diver’s heartbreaking scratch. A medalist lifting up a teammate. Cherished glimpses of Japanese culture — our journalists saw a lot viewers may not have.
See the Summer Olympics in a series of composite images.
Skip to content Skip to site index Skateboarding Today’s Paper Advertisement
Sakura Yosozumi, 19, won by one point over 12-year-old Kokona Hiraki, also of Japan. Sky Brown of Britain, 13, was third.
By Larry Buchanan, Jon Huang, Emily Rhyne, Bedel Saget, Joe Ward, skateboard trick article

An Ethnographic Study skateboard scholarly articles of the Skateboarding Culture – The Sport Journal

The single source of data for this study limits the validity. However, repeated observations of the same participants improved the internal validity, or interpretability of the data . Further research may be necessary to confirm the external validity, or generalizability of the findings .
Regardless of gender, discipline, ethnicity, or age, the participants in this study routinely embraced each other, supported each other by showing encouragement and appreciation, and showed no signs of negative emotion toward other participants, despite the fact that prize money was on the line. This lack of negative emotions infers an inclusionary construct within the skateboarding culture.
Data was collected through an ethnographic analysis, noting unspoken language, behaviors, and cultural artifacts such as dress, hair, and body art. A description of what is observed in the video is detailed. As the competition begins, a standing room only crowd is observed. No whistles, balls, referees, or coaches can be found. Instead, the competition is on the sidewalk behind Staples Center in downtown Los Angeles. Just before the competition, one athlete is break dancing for the crowd. Another is signing autographs. One athlete hides his face from the camera as his family sports hats that look like wedges of cheese in the background. Another athlete dances to the music as he eyes the young, thin, attractive girls in the front row of the crowd. From these observations, inferences can be made to the general population of skateboarders that might suggest that skateboarders are more concerned about having fun and connecting with the audience than winning competitions.
Gave advice to “hang on, you’ve got 4 tries, that’s it,” joked with camera
To understand what was happening in the video, the researcher looked to identify “rich points” or patterns across certain kinds of people in certain situations . After preliminary notes were taken and reviewed, the DVD was again reviewed repeatedly to confirm the original notes and to make additional observations. Special attention was given to communication and action that took through participant interaction and crowd responses. Through a careful analysis of participant characteristics, participant interaction, and crowd responses, explanations for the overall increase in participation in skateboarding and the rationale for increased acceptance of skateboarding by mainstream sports enthusiasts can be garnered.
The participants did not wear uniforms or jerseys that identified their team or sponsors. Rather, each participant had an individual sense of style that provided for self-expression. However, similarities in style suggest certain appearance constructs of the skateboarding culture. Comfortable attire such as baggy jeans and loose-fitting t-shirts that allow for movement were common among participants. Style appears to be important to members of the skateboarding culture, but style is not what everyone else is doing or wearing. Rather, style appears to be an expression of individuality. The presence of tattoos, body piercing, or other expressions of individuality could not be gleaned from the video in this study.
Neuman, W. L. . Social research methods . Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Data from this ethnographic study was collected by watching the DVD repeatedly to identify the demographic characteristics of the skateboarding participants, including athletes, judges and announcers who were presented in the footage, then observing behaviors and appearances from which meaningful inferences could be drawn.
Bostick, D. & Bostick, D. & Kanights, B. . . Planes, trains and skateboards . United States: Come Together Productions.
Kusz, K. . BMX, extreme sports, and the White male backlash. In Brayton, S. . “Black-Lash”: Revisiting the “White Negro” through skateboarding. Sociology of Sport Journal , 22. Retrieved September 22, 2006, from EBSCOhost database.
Family supported participant by wearing shirts spelling out last name
The demographic characteristics revealed limited diversity among the professional skateboarders who participated in the study competition. Of the 30 participants, 10% were female and 90% were male. 73% were observed to be of Caucasian ethnicity, while 16% were observed to be of Hispanic origins and 1% of African American ethnicity. Age ranged from early teens to late thirties and appeared to have some correlation to the discipline as younger skaters tended to be involved in street skating, while the older, more experienced skaters dominated the vert and big air disciplines. The demographic characteristics are presented in Table 1.
Women’s opportunities for competitive physical activity were limited in America until Federal Legislation, commonly referred to as Title IX, became law. It required American society to recognize a woman’s right to participate in sports on a plane equal to that of men. Prior to 1870, activities for women were recreational rather than sport-specific in nature. They were noncompetitive, informal, rule-less; they emphasized physical activity rather than competition. In the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, women began to form clubs that were athletic in nature. Efforts to limit women’s sport activity continued as they became more involved in competitive sports. This paper will present a history of women’s involvement in sport prior to the federal legislation enacted to eliminate sexual discrimination in education and sport.
Bias is inherent in qualitative research . In particular, because the researcher is the instrument, personal background, interests, and point of view become part of the analysis. In this study, the researcher has an interest in understanding the culture of skateboarding and has participated in the action sports industry for 13 years. Yet these years have not provided an opportunity to discover how skateboarders think or why these athletes do what they do. While bias cannot be erased, bias is identified as a mediating factor that may influence the results of this study.
To outsiders, skaters are thought of as rebels, social deviants, or simply different. Participants are banned from public areas and signs are routinely posted prohibiting the activity . However, understanding the culture of skateboarding can be insightful for politicians, adults, or scholars who seek to develop stronger relationships with young people .
Agar suggests that ethnography is about the study of human differences through the identification of similarities. By studying the similarities among the participants in the video, the researcher identified differences between these participants to draw meaning that connects these participants to outsiders such as the researcher.
Another central theme of this study was the energy and drive of the participants. While each participant was competing, facial expressions suggested the presence of passion and determination, fun, excitement, and desire to do their best at that moment. Participants did not appear tired or winded, even at the conclusion of their turn in the competition rotation. Although the exact time of each run was not apparent from the video, many athletes continued to show energy by dancing, jumping, or engaging in other celebratory acts. Observed behaviors included applauding each other, dancing, smiling, and other congratulatory behaviors. The unique behaviors of participants and spectators, which were captured in the video, are included in Table 2.
Skateboarding allows for individuality as rules are minimal and self-expression is encouraged. This freedom to be creative and express oneself through skateboarding activity can be a means of empowerment. Through the cultural values of inclusion, having fun, self-expression, and progression, participants can build confidence to become leaders. By understanding the culture of skateboarding, today’s leaders are in a better position to understand tomorrow’s leaders and develop communication styles to improve interaction between generations.
Received congratulatory slap and hugged competitors on deck, skateboard scholarly articles started dancing to the music, showed medal to group of reporters following competition, hugged female reporter
Woolley, H. & Johns, R. . Skateboarding: The city as a playground. Journal of Urban Design , 6 .
In a study of female skaters, participants described skateboarding as fun, adventurous, confidence building, and nonconformist with a casual, comfortable style . These same themes can be inferred from the current study. Even with the status of professional athlete, the subjects in this study were observed as happy, comfortable, and inclusive.
Indicated he was “gearing up for getting slammed”
Table 1 Demographic Characteristics of Skateboarding Participants

While danger is inherent in most sports, the potential for falls in skateboarding appears quite high. Helmets, kneepads, elbow pads, wrist guards and gloves were observed in both the vert and big air disciplines. The use of safety equipment appeared to be routine for all competitors, suggesting a concern for safety.
Agar, M. . Culture: Can you take it anywhere ? International Journal of Qualitative Methods , 5 .
Critics argue that the skateboarding culture represents a youth activity that embraces anti-establishment values in opposition to middle class norms and values inherent in traditional team sports . However, popular culture can be a means of projecting social resistance, and skateboarding is no exception, despite originating under the Boy Scouts of America umbrella .
Described Big Air Mega Ramp, suggests he’s lost money by betting on these competitions, but laughs as if he’s joking,
Ethnography describes a culture and provides an understanding of that culture from an insider’s perspective . Through observation, inferences can be made from how members of a culture act, speak, or think within specific cultural contexts to give meaning to actions and behaviors of the group. This study uses an ethnographic design to identify characteristics of the skateboarding culture by documenting characteristics, action, and behaviors of participants in the video compilation of Planes, Trains and Skateboards .
Planes, Trains and Skateboards is a video compilation of skateboarding events held around the world during 2004. Each of the 15 chapters highlights the social scene enveloping the competition and the athletes who participated. For purposes of this analysis, Chapter 13, X Games X, which includes skateboard street, vert best trick, and big air competitions, was selected because of the variety of genres included in the compilation and the competitive nature of the event.
Nolan, N. . The ins and outs of skateboarding and transgression in public space in Newcastle, Australia . Australian Geographer , 34 .
An Ethnographic Study skateboard scholarly articles of the Skateboarding Culture – The Sport JournalAn Ethnographic Study skateboard scholarly articles of the Skateboarding Culture – The Sport Journal
The data from this study were recorded and analyzed for patterns within observed responses and actions. Demographic observations were made. Actions and behaviors were then analyzed. The analysis revealed several themes: acceptance, energy and drive, concern for safety, self-expression of style, and progression.
The population for this study consists of professional skateboarders participating in skateboard competition at X Games X in Los Angeles, CA. While not all skateboarders become professional athletes, the sample for this study included street skaters, vert skaters, and big air skaters. Street skaters are those who predominantly skate on streets and other public domains where concrete and obstacles offer an interesting playground. Vert skaters are those who skate on a half-pipe, usually made of wood or concrete shaped like half of a pipe cut through the diameter. Big air skaters are the newest genre to the culture as these athletes are the most experienced group of skaters and choose a mega-ramp that rises as high as seven stories in the air from which they “drop-in” to gain enough speed to carry them across the bottom, up the opposite side, and above the ramp by as much as 15 or 20 feet above the rim. While each group of skaters is different, by identifying the similarities between them, a greater understanding of the skateboarding culture is gleaned.
World Cup Skateboarding captured the essence of competitive skateboarding in the 2004 release of Planes, Trains and Skateboards from video recorded at X Games X in Los Angeles, CA. Through observation of communication styles and cultural artifacts manifested in the video, the culture of competitive skateboarding is described and generalizations to the overall culture that envelopes skateboarding are discussed. From the discussion of the video content, inferences are synthesized to provide a greater understanding of the skateboarding culture.
Skate competitors shown watching, enjoying competition
Finally, with the variety of disciplines within skateboarding, the theme of progression appears to play a prominent role. While street skating was the original discipline of early skateboarders back in the 1950s, the vert competition was introduced in the mid-1970s as skaters found empty swimming pools provided an interesting playground for skateboarding activities . Not until X Games X was the big air discipline introduced as a competitive event. The progression of the sport through these disciplines suggests skateboarding is an evolving culture that pushes members to try new things, take bigger risks, and progress the sport to new levels.
Freeman, C. & Riordan, T. . Locating skateparks: The planner’s dilemma. Planning, Practice & Research , 17 .
Smiled, happy, camera pan of crowd revealed jammed parking lot full of people cheering and applauding
“Awesome,” “sick” suggests athletes must have guts to try this
Hayes, A. . Dogtown and Z-Boys: Teaching the documentary. Screen Education , 40 . Retrieved September 22, 2006, from EBSCOhost database.
Nervous, anxious look on face prior to taking jump
Held small child on the medal stand and waived to crowd after winning gold medal, appeared very happy
Beal, B. . Disqualifying the official: An exploration of social resistance through the subculture of skateboarding. Sociology of Sport Journal , 12 . Retrieved September 22, 2006, from EBSCOhost database.
Skateboarders are often seen as outsiders. However, understanding the culture of skateboarding can be insightful for politicians, adults, or scholars who seek to develop stronger relationships with young people who participate in skateboarding . In this ethnographic study, skateboarding culture is described through observations of professional skateboarders in a segment of the DVD, Planes, Trains and Skateboards. The findings suggested themes of acceptance, energy and drive, concern for safety, self-expression of style, and progression. Leaders who understand the culture of skateboarding may be able to communicate more effectively with the younger generation.
Describes this as “history in the making” “gladiator skateboarders”
Kelly, D. M., Pomerantz, S., & Currie, D. . Skater girlhood and emphasized femininity: ‘you can’t land an ollie properly in heels’ . skateboard related articles

skateboarding History, Culture, Tricks, skateboard articles & Facts Britannica

The first commercial skateboards appeared in 1959, but crude homemade versions of skateboards, often consisting of nothing more than old roller-skate wheels attached to a board, were first built after the turn of the 20th century. In the early 1960s, skateboard manufacturers such as Makaha and Hobie attempted to capitalize on the rising popularity of surfing by promoting skateboarding, then known as “sidewalk surfing,” as an alternative diversion when no rideable waves were available. In 1963 Makaha formed the first professional skateboard team, and that same year the first skateboard competition was held in Hermosa, California . It included events in freestyle and downhill slalom skateboarding. The initial popularity of skateboarding waned over the next couple of years because of the limitations of the skateboard’s maneuverability and because of warnings from safety professionals that the activity was dangerous.
Much of the excitement of skateboarding rests in the riders’ creativity. Skaters compete to invent new tricks or new combinations of tricks. Three of the most fundamental skateboarding moves are the kickturn, the ollie, and the grind. A kickturn is accomplished when the rider pushes down on the kicktail, lifting the front wheels off the ground and spinning on the rear wheels. The hands-free aerial known as the ollie is one of the most important tricks in contemporary skateboarding. It was invented in 1978 by Alan Gelfand, who discovered that slamming his foot down on the kicktail and simultaneously sliding his front foot forward caused the board and himself to jump into the air together. A grind involves riding with the trucks against the edge or top of an object.
World Cup Skateboarding, founded in 1994, oversees the biggest street and vert skateboarding competitions, including events in Australia , Brazil, Canada, and the United States and throughout Europe and Asia.
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skateboarding History, Culture, Tricks, skateboard articles & Facts Britannicaskateboarding History, Culture, Tricks, skateboard articles & Facts Britannica
There are variations of the skateboard, most notably the longboard, which can run from 38 to 60 inches in length. The sport of street luge began with the use of longboards, ridden in a prone position down a steep hill. The street luge vehicles are still essentially skateboards but are up to 8.5 feet long and have supports for the head and feet. They can reach speeds of 80 miles per hour. Other modifications to the skateboard include sails for wind-aided riding and blades for skating on ice.

skateboarding , form of recreation and sport, popular among youths, in which a person rides standing balanced on a small board mounted on wheels. Considered one of the so-called extreme sports , skateboarding as a professional sport boasts a range of competitions, including vertical and street-style events. Vertical skating features aerial acrobatics performed in half-pipes that were originally built to emulate empty swimming pools. Street style features tricks performed in a real or simulated urban environment with stairs, skateboard articles rails, ledges, and other obstacles. Skateboarding has developed as a youth subculture that emphasizes creativity and individuality. It is an alternative to mainstream team sports, which are more formally organized and largely controlled by adults.
In the 1980s skateboarding enjoyed an underground following. Skateboarders built their own ramps and half-pipes and began skating the urban environments , creating what became known as street style. Increased board size and improved truck constructions helped the new style thrive. It was during this time that a distinctive youth subculture began to develop around the sport. Punk rock and baggy clothes became closely associated with young skaters. The daring and individualistic nature of street and vert skateboarding was spread through straight-to-video documentary films that found a large youth audience. The videos made stars of vert skaters Tony Hawk and Steve Caballero and street skaters Natas Kaupas and Mark Gonzalez, among many others. But it was the advent of large competitions, such as the X Games , an alternative sports festival sponsored by the cable television network ESPN and first held in 1995, that gave the sport mainstream exposure and a certain commercial legitimacy. Skateboarding has established itself as a professional sport while still maintaining its independence from traditional team sports. Snowboarding and in-line roller-skating have been heavily influenced by skateboarding techniques and culture .
Most skateboards are about 32 inches long and 9 inches wide. A skateboard comprises three major parts: the deck , the trucks , and the wheels. Originally, decks were made of wood, but later they were also made of aluminum, fibreglass , and plastic. The rear part of the deck is bent upward to form the kicktail, as is the front on modern designs. The truck includes an axle, a hangar , and a cushion that both absorbs shocks and provides flexibility for steering. The wheels are made of tough polyurethane plastic.
Skateboards were revived in the mid-1970s after the development of the faster and more-maneuverable polyurethane wheel and the introduction of the kicktail, the raised back end of the board that makes kickturns possible. The craze spread worldwide, and skateboard magazines helped promote both the sport and young innovative riders such as Tony Alva and Stacey Peralta. The first skate park was built in Florida in 1976, and many others began to appear throughout North and South America , Europe, and Asia, all providing a variety of slopes and banked surfaces for sudden turns and stunts. It was at this time that riders started skating in empty pools and exploring the “vertical” potential of the sport. The empty pools soon gave way to half-pipes, U-shaped riding surfaces used to perform aerial stunts. Though protective gear such as helmets and knee pads was commonplace, skateboard scholarly articles

Electric Skateboards A Transportation Revolution electric skateboard article

Though there may be a bit of apprehension around electric skateboards, I believe that the interest outweighs the concerns. There’s definitely a growing demand for these boards, and as their popularity continues to increase, I think the public will continue to become more comfortable with having them around.
After doing a little research and even trying out a few, I can confidently say that electric skateboards will not be going anywhere anytime soon. With the ability to have a direct impact on the transportation industry , I actually predict their popularity to skyrocket.
There are some that resemble longboards like the Carbon GT Series Boards by Evolve,

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With all this buzz about electric skateboards being the next big thing, the one question I found myself asking was, “are these things just another fad, or are they here to stay?”
Some that are small enough to fit in your backpack like the Spectra ,
I’m actually quite interested in seeing the direction electric skateboards will go. I don’t know about you, but I find the possibility of a world with fewer cars and more boards on the road quite exciting.
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On an electric skateboard, kicking and pushing are now things of the past. With some reaching speeds of up to 25 miles per hour, these devices have the ability to provide faster commute times than a traditional skateboard. They also allow skateboarders to travel uphill, and on new terrain that they may not have been able to before. Many electric skateboards are also equipped with safety brakes so riders never have to worry about losing control of their board.
Places are sculpted by how people move through them. A growing number of communities are choosing to bicycle. Each community that uses bicycle transportation is supported by roads that allow them to ride safely. As an initiative, many cities plan ways to accommodate… electric skateboard article
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We are in the midst of a transportation revolution, and electric transit seems to be the wave of the future . We have had electric cars around for awhile now, and over the last few years electric bikes have taken off, but the latest trend everyone seems to be talking about is the electric skateboard. As of recently, electric skateboards have slowly worked their way onto college campuses, into city streets, and into just about every other urban location you can think of.
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Now there have been a few concerns with electric skateboards and customers trust in product safety . As of recently, there have been a couple of companies that have had to recall their boards due to fire hazards. Having watched the whole “hoverboard” fiasco unravel last year, it’s understandable that many people are concerned with the potential risks of electric skateboards doing the same thing.
Electric Skateboards A Transportation Revolution electric skateboard articleElectric Skateboards A Transportation Revolution electric skateboard article
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Completely machine powered and controlled by a remote or an app on a smartphone , the beauty of electric skateboards is that they make up for what traditional boards lack.
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And some that even allow you to transform your traditional skateboard deck into a unique electric skateboard of its own like The Mellow Drive .
The electric skateboard trend has generated a lot of public attention, creating a race among companies to see who will create the best board . Right now there are a variety of electronic skateboards on the market.
Metal Bike Vault®   vs Fiberglass Lockers DURAPLAS™ STEEL High impact plastic protects steel from heat, weather and migrating oxidation. FIBERGLASS MOLD UV radiation weakens the structure of fiberglass. Lower impact resistance. KNOCKDOWN DESIGN…
Electric skateboards have continued in their revolutionary direction. We have seen how much they have progressed. Now the development of these personal electric vehicles has reached a steady point, now they are the best they’ve ever been. Boosted Boards Their. la times skateboard article .